Benefits of Human Genome Project by:
Recombinant DNA technology also known as genetic engineering combines the DNA from one organism with that of another to create a hybrid with specifically designed properties, such as a seed that's been made pest-resistant through the combination of animal DNA.
This fast-growing technology presents a variety of potential benefits and potential hazards. One example is its use in producing insulin, a life-saving necessity for people with type 1 diabetes.
Purified insulin from cows and pigs was previously used, but recombinant DNA technology has allowed scientists to develop synthetic human insulin. Recombinant DNA has also been to develop vaccines for such diseases as herpes, influenza, hepatitis and other infectious diseases.
The drug interferon, used to treat lymphoma and myelogenous leukaemia, is also the result of recombinant DNA technology. According to the website of the Human Genome Project, as of there were million acres of transgenic crops planted in 22 different countries by Many of these were genetically engineered to be insect-resistant without the need for chemical herbicides, and some were developed to resist crop-destroying viruses and survive weather extremes.
Genetic engineering was also behind the development of rice that contains increased levels of iron and vitamins, for use in Asian countries where chronic malnutrition is a problem.
According to the site, new areas in development include bananas that produce vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and cattle that are resistant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy mad cow disease.
Health Concerns One of the primary concerns over the use of recombinant DNA in food is that the long-term effects on human health are still unknown. In fact, a number of scientists have voiced their concerns about the potential health risks of this technology.
According to British professor Mae Wan-Ho, bypassing conventional breeding with "artificially constructed parasitic elements [such as] viruses" may present hazards, since inserting foreign genes into a host genome has "been known to have many harmful and fatal effects, including cancer.
Michael Antoniu notes that the artificial combination of "genetic material from unrelated species" is disrupting the genetic blueprint of the host organism "with totally unpredictable consequences," and he notes that recombinant DNA has resulted in the inadvertent production of toxic substances in "genetically engineered bacteria, yeast, plants and animals.
In China, human DNA is being placed in tomatoes and peppers to speed their growth.
Would eating a tomato that contained human DNA make you a cannibal? Famed physicist Stephen Hawking, while not a biotechnologist, points out that genetic engineering has caused a scientific shift in which we no longer merely explore the natural world and its mechanisms, but actually redesign them.
DNA technology, he says, portends the end of natural evolution; for the first time in the history of humanity, our species can use science and technology to evolve our own genetic make-up.The project is utilizing seawater from a Mar de Plata industrial cooling process and is projected to yield gallons of algal oil per acre ( liters per hectare).The project, which commenced in , is using flocculation and centrifuges for algae extraction and said it was using an undisclosed algal strain adapted for local conditions.
- The Human Genome Project is an international scientific research project that had one goal: to complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings. A genome is a collection of all your genes and DNA. Every human cell has about 4 thousand genes.
The Human Genome Project has many advantages and disadvantages to society. Genetics Clinical Genetics Population Genetics Genome Biology Biostatistics Epidemiology Bias & Confounding HLA MHC Glossary Homepage. GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY GLOSSARY.
Mehmet Tevfik DORAK. Accompanying Genetic Epidemiology Lecture Note & Presentation (see also Genome Biology for Genetic Epidemiologists) ACCE project . Genetic Engineering [back to top] Genetic engineering, also known as recombinant DNA technology, means altering the genes in a living organism to produce a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) with a new genotype.
Various kinds of genetic modification are possible: inserting a foreign gene from one species into another, forming a transgenic .
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an intellectual endeavor. It is underway mostly via computer science and laboratory procedures, hence there is very little risk to anyone involved. Thus, it has remarkably few disadvantages, as it is simply an effort to add to the collective knowledge of mankind.
Prior work has mapped some of these inherited loci in the human genome, identifying—among other things—immune genes from Neanderthals, which researchers speculate may have provided both Neanderthals and early H.
sapiens adaptive advantages against infectious organisms.