Today's blogger is Jeff Ousborneauthor of Writing Music: A Bedford Spotlight Reader. All the essays in Writing Music model thoughtful and perceptive writing in a range of genres, from blog posts to scholarly articles. Students can read and adapt practical strategies for, say, moving from a general claim to a supporting example or using a paragraph to address an opposing point of view.
It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: The manual of rituals was printed by Laps D. The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein. For example, Confederate veteran John W. Morton founded a chapter in Nashville, Tennessee. In andthe federal government passed the Enforcement Actswhich were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes.
It seriously weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence; it drove some people out of politics. On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, and enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens".
Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South. More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective — the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South. They were described as acting as the military arm of the Democratic Party and are attributed with helping white Democrats regain control of state legislatures throughout the South.
Second KKK See also: While Simmons relied on documents from the original Klan and memories of some surviving elders, the revived Klan was based significantly on the wildly popular film, The Birth of a Nation. The earlier Klan had not worn the white costumes or burned crosses; these were aspects introduced in the film.
When the film was shown in Atlanta in December of that year, Simmons and his new klansmen paraded to the theater in robes and pointed hoods — many on robed horses — just like in the movie.
These mass parades would become another hallmark of the new Klan that had not existed in the original Reconstruction-era organization.
The national headquarters made its profit through a monopoly of costume sales, while the organizers were paid through initiation fees. It grew rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity.
Reflecting the social tensions pitting urban versus rural America, it spread to every state and was prominent in many cities. The second KKK preached "One Hundred Percent Americanism" and demanded the purification of politics, calling for strict morality and better enforcement of Prohibition.
Its official rhetoric focused on the threat of the Catholic Churchusing anti-Catholicism and nativism. During the resurgence of the second Klan during the s, its publicity was handled by the Southern Publicity Association —within the first six months of the Associations national recruitment campaign, Klan membership had increased by 85, Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders, and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about 30, by It finally faded away in the s.
During this period, they often forged alliances with Southern police departments, as in Birmingham, Alabama ; or with governor's offices, as with George Wallace of Alabama. As ofresearchers estimate that there are just over 30 active Klan groups exist in the United States,  with about chapters.
Tuscaloosa, AlabamaIndependent Monitor, September 1, Hubbs, Searching for Freedom after the Civil War: Klansman, Carpetbagger, Scalawag, and Freedman InMississippi Governor William L. Sharkey reported that disorder, lack of control, and lawlessness were widespread; in some states armed bands of Confederate soldiers roamed at will.
The Klan used public violence against black people and their allies as intimidation. They burned houses and attacked and killed black peopleleaving their bodies on the roads. Since most of the Klan's members were veterans, they were used to such military hierarchy, but the Klan never operated under this centralized structure.
Local chapters and bands were highly independent. For instance, an applicant should be asked if he was in favor of "a white man's government," "the reenfranchisement and emancipation of the white men of the South, and the restitution of the Southern people to all their rights.
There were never hierarchical levels or state headquarters. Klan members used violence to settle old personal feuds and local grudges, as they worked to restore general white dominance in the disrupted postwar society.
The historian Elaine Frantz Parsons describes the membership: Lifting the Klan mask revealed a chaotic multitude of antiblack vigilante groups, disgruntled poor white farmers, wartime guerrilla bands, displaced Democratic politicians, illegal whiskey distillers, coercive moral reformers, sadists, rapists, white workmen fearful of black competition, employers trying to enforce labor discipline, common thieves, neighbors with decades-old grudges, and even a few freedmen and white Republicans who allied with Democratic whites or had criminal agendas of their own.
Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democraticwas that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.Transcript of Reading, Teaching and Writing About Digital Texts "Young people today have an unprecedented level of access to a wider range of content and connectivity than ever before, yet access does not ensure that reflection and learning takes place" (Because Digital Writing Matters, National Writing Project, 2).
Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Course materials, exam information, and professional development opportunities for AP teachers and coordinators. All sections of and will use Greene and Lidinsky's From Inquiry to Academic Writing, and faculty can supplement that rhetoric with readings of their own choosing.
The Writing Program recommends the following course readers. Again, these are just some of the questions that you can use (for more, see “Asking the Right Questions” section in this book’s “Preface for Students” (pages ) or Critical Reading and Writing: A Bedford Spotlight Rhetoric (page 22)).
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