Noise pollution and mitigation in urban

Hire Writer Things like public transportation, land usage, businesses, and highways are gust certain factors that are made to create a city into a striving place that can prosper and be a model to other areas of interest. All these things bring the problem that most major cities face, including noise pollution. So what are the biggest factors that contribute to air pollution?

Noise pollution and mitigation in urban

Sound treatment panels contrast with red curtains in a church meeting hall Soundproof doors in a broadcast center Acoustic ceiling tiles Architectural acoustics noise control practices include: In the case of construction of new or remodeled apartmentscondominiumshospitalsand hotelsmany states and cities have stringent building codes with requirements of acoustical analysis, in order to protect building occupants.

With regard to exterior noise, the codes usually require measurement of the exterior acoustic environment in order to determine the performance standard required for exterior building skin design. The architect can work with the acoustical scientist to arrive at the best cost-effective means of creating a quiet interior normally 45 dBA.

The most important elements of design of the building skin are usually: Regarding sound generated inside the building, there are two principal types of transmission. Firstly, airborne sound travels through walls or floor and ceiling assemblies and can emanate from either human activities in adjacent living spaces or from mechanical noise within the building systems.

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Human activities might include voice, noise from amplified sound systems, or animal noise. Mechanical systems are elevator systems, boilersrefrigeration or air conditioning systems, generators and trash compactors.

Aerodynamic sources include fans, pneumatics, and combustion. Noise control for aerodynamic sources include quiet air nozzlespneumatic silencers and quiet fan technology. Since many mechanical sounds are inherently loud, the principal design element is to require the wall or ceiling assembly to meet certain performance standards, [13] typically Sound transmission class of 50which allows considerable attenuation of the sound level reaching occupants.

This effect arises not from airborne transmissionbut rather from transmission of sound through the building itself. The most common perception of IIC noise is from footfall of occupants in living spaces above.

Low frequency noise is transferred easily through the ground and buildings. This type of noise is more difficult to abate, but consideration must be given to isolating the floor assembly above or hanging the lower ceiling on resilient channel.

Both of the transmission effects noted above may emanate either from building occupants or from building mechanical systems such as elevators, plumbing systems or heating, ventilating and air conditioning units.

In some cases it is merely necessary to specify the best available quieting technology in selecting such building hardware. In other cases shock mounting of systems to control vibration may be in order.

In the case of plumbing systems there are specific protocols developed, especially for water supply lines, to create isolation clamping of pipes within building walls. In the case of central air systems, it is important to baffle any ducts that could transmit sound between different building areas.

Designing special-purpose rooms has more exotic challenges, since these rooms may have requirements for unusual features such as concert performance, sound studio recordinglecture halls. In these cases reverberation and reflection must be analyzed in order to not only quiet the rooms, but to prevent echo effects from occurring.

In these situations special sound baffles and sound absorptive lining materials may be specified to dampen unwanted effects.

Materials[ edit ] Acoustical wall and ceiling panels can be constructed of many different materials and finishes.

The ideal acoustical panels are those without a face or finish material that interferes with the acoustical infill or substrate. Fabric covered panels are one way to maximize the acoustical absorption.

The finish material is used to cover over the acoustical substrate. Mineral fiber board, or Micore, is a commonly used acoustical substrate. Finish materials often consist of fabric, wood or metal.

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Fabric can be wrapped around substrates to create what is referred to as a "pre-fabricated panel" if laid onto a wall, and require no modifications. Such fabrics are generally acoustically 'transparent, meaning that they do not impede a sound wave. On-site wall panels can be constructed to work around door frames, baseboard, or any other intrusion.

Large panels generally greater than 50 feet can be created on walls and ceilings with this method. Double-glazed and thicker windows can also prevent sound transmission from the outdoors. Industrial noise Industrial noise is traditionally associated with manufacturing settings where industrial machinery produces intense sound levels, [15] often upwards of 85 decibels.

While this circumstance is the most dramatic, there are many other work environments where sound levels may lie in the range of 70 to 75 decibels, entirely composed of office equipment, music, public address systems, and even exterior noise intrusion.

Either type of environment may result in noise health effects if the sound intensity and exposure time is too great. In the case of industrial equipment, the most common techniques for noise protection of workers consist of shock mounting source equipment, creation of acrylic glass or other solid barriers, and provision of ear protection equipment.

In certain cases the machinery itself can be re-designed to operate in a manner less prone to produce grating, grinding, frictional, or other motions that induce sound emissions.

In recent years, Buy Quiet programs and initiatives have arisen in an effort to combat occupational noise exposures. These programs promote the purchase of quieter tools and equipment and encourage manufacturers to design quieter equipment.

Other solutions may involve researching the quietest models of office equipment, particularly printers and photocopy machines.On-board microphones capture the noise differential as a vehicle transitions from an asphalt rubber surface (ARFC) to a portland cement concrete pavement .

Certified that the thesis entitled, “NOISE POLLUTION – CAUSES, MITIGATION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR ATTENUATION” is the bonafide work of Mr.

Noise pollution and mitigation in urban

DASARATHY, A.K. who had carried out the research under my supervision and it is devoid of any plagiarism to the best of my knowledge. URBAN NOISE MITIGATION Reina Ezzeddine, Basma Hallak, Fawzi Khalifeh, Tamer Ladan, Nabeeha Shokor considered main causes of noise pollution in urban areas, and therefore improvements and policies must be implemented to reduce their contribution to the problem.

The construction and structures. The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions, acoustic, and oil rutadeltambor.com International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimates that Carbon dioxide emissions from shipping were equal to % of the global human-made emissions in and expects them to rise 50 to percent by if no action is taken..

The First Intersessional Meeting of the IMO Working Group. The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of is a statute of the United States initiating a federal program of regulating noise pollution with the intent of protecting human health and minimizing annoyance of noise to the general public..

The Act established mechanisms of setting emission standards for virtually every source of noise, including motor vehicles, aircraft, certain types of HVAC. Noise Pollution and Mitigation in Urban Developments When the topic of pollution comes about, most people usually attribute it to air pollution.

Air pollution is usually the first thing people think of because it is the highly debated form of pollution that occurs in most urban settings.

Noise Control Act - Wikipedia