One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I d.
Morocco —58 With the marriage of the heirs apparent to their respective thrones Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a personal union that most scholars view as the foundation of the Spanish monarchy.
Their dynastic alliance was important for a number of reasons, ruling jointly over a large aggregation of territories although not in a unitary fashion. Ferdinand of Aragon was particularly concerned with expansion in France and Italy, as well as conquests in North Africa.
The Kingdom of Portugal had an advantage over the rest of Iberian, having earlier retaken territory from the Muslims. Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.
Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in and first major settlement in the New World inPortugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillaswhich gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain. Columbus unexpectedly encountered the western hemisphere, populated by peoples he named "Indians.
Managing the expanding empire became an administrative issue. It had conquered Melilla inand further expansionism policy in North Africa was developed during the regency of Ferdinand the Catholic in Castile, stimulated by the Cardinal Cisneros.
Several towns and outposts in the North African coast were conquered and occupied by Castile: Tripoli was taken on 24—25 July, the feast of St. Jamesprotector of Spain; the claim was made that 10, Muslims were killed and many captured.
The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: The Zeiyanid sultans of Tlemcen quickly submitted to Spanish protectorate, and the two powers soon became allies. Oran, like other principal Algerian ports, was forced to accept a presidio military outpost ; it became a major naval base, a garrison city armed with traffic-commanding cannons and harquebuses.
The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the midth century.
After the death of Queen Isabella inand her exclusion of Ferdinand from a further role in Castile, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix incementing an alliance with France.
Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Milan — to which he held a dynastic claim — and Navarre. This war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and inFrance agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarrewhich had effectively been a Spanish protectorate following a series of treaties in,and Conquest of the Canary Islands The conquest of the Canary Islands Portugal obtained several Papal bulls that acknowledged Portuguese control over the discovered territories, but Castile also obtained from the Pope the safeguard of its rights to the Canary Islands with the bulls Romani Pontifex dated 6 November and Dominatur Dominus dated 30 April The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between andwhen the islands of Gran Canaria —La Palma —and Tenerife — were subjugated.
Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". The War of the Castilian Succession —79 provided the Catholic Monarchs with the opportunity not only to attack the main source of the Portuguese power, but also to take possession of this lucrative commerce.
SAN JOSÉ STATE UNIVERSITY ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT Thayer Watkins. The Spanish and Portuguese Conquest of the Americas. In Christopher Columbus tried unsuccessfully to interest King John II of Portugal in voyages of discovery to the west. Find out how the Spanish wars helped shape the world throughout 5 centuries, from the conquest of territories in almost every continent, civil wars, independence wars, succession wars and invasions. From the unification of Spain to the Spanish civil war. The truth is, the world we know today wouldn't be the same without Spain. Also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, the Ottoman state became an empire with the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in The Ottoman dynasty lasted for years until the monarchy was abolished in and covered parts of Asia, Europe and Africa.
The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: Isabella at the center, Columbus on the left, a cross on her right. The two became known as the Catholic Monarchswith their marriage a personal union that created a relationship between the Crown of Aragon and Castile, each with their own administrations, but ruled jointly by the two monarchs.
Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.
In the Capitulations of Santa Fedated on 17 AprilChristopher Columbus obtained from the Catholic Monarchs his appointment as viceroy and governor in the lands already discovered  and that he might discover thenceforth;   thereby, it was the first document to establish an administrative organization in the Indies.
These actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south later with the exception of Brazilwhich Portuguese commander Pedro Alvares Cabral encountered inas well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas  and the treaty of Cintra 18 September  established the limits of the Kingdom of Fez for Portugal, and the Castilian expansion was allowed outside these limits, beginning with the conquest of Melilla in Other European powers did not see the treaty between Spain and Portugal as binding on themselves.
Converting the inhabitants of in the newly discovered lands was entrusted by the papacy to the rulers of Portugal and Spain, through a series of papal actions. The Patronato realor power of royal patronage for ecclesiastical positions had precedents in Iberia during the reconquest. Eximiae devotionis sinceritas granted the Catholic monarchs and their successors the same rights that the papacy had granted Portugal, in particular the right of presentation of candidates for ecclesiastical positions in the newly discovered territories.SAN JOSÉ STATE UNIVERSITY ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT Thayer Watkins.
The Spanish and Portuguese Conquest of the Americas. In Christopher Columbus tried unsuccessfully to interest King John II of Portugal in voyages of discovery to the west.
3 The Empire of the last Spanish Habsburgs (–) 4 The Bourbon Spanish Empire: Reform and Recovery (–) The marriage of the Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile created a confederation of reigns, each with their own administrations, but ruled by a common monarchy.
Find out how the Spanish wars helped shape the world throughout 5 centuries, from the conquest of territories in almost every continent, civil wars, independence wars, succession wars and invasions. From the unification of Spain to the Spanish civil war.
The truth is, the world we know today wouldn't be the same without Spain. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty). Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān (عثمان ).
In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye (دولت عليه عثمانیه ), . A timeline of the rise and fall of empires around the World.
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