It has only been since the s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers. The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom. There are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away. First of all, any method or approach towards using literature in the classroom must take as a starting point the question:
Periodization[ edit ] A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gatheringoriginally attributed to Wang Xizhi — AD of the Jin dynasty The periodization scheme employed in this article is the one detailed by the Ming dynasty scholar Gao Bing — in the preface to his work Tangshi Pinhuiwhich has enjoyed broad acceptance since his time.
Classical Chinese poetry forms The representative form of poetry composed during the Tang dynasty is the shi. By the time of the Tang dynasty, there was already a continuous Chinese body of poetry dating back for over a thousand years. Such works as the Chu Ci and Shijing were major influences on Tang poetry, as were the developments of Han poetry and Jian'an poetry.
All of these influenced the Six Dynasties poetrywhich in turn helped to inspire the Tang poets. In terms of influences upon the poetry of the early Tang, Burton Watson characterizes the poetry of the Sui and early Tang as "a mere continuation of Six Dynasties genres and styles.
The Tang dynasty was a time of major social and probably linguistic upheavals.
Thus, the genre may be divided into several major more-or-less chronological divisions, based on developmental stages or stylistic groupings sometimes even topics to write about in poetry personal friendships between poets.
It should be remembered that poets may be somewhat arbitrarily assigned to these based on their presumed biographical dates not always known ; furthermore that the lifetimes of poets toward the beginning or end of this period may overlap with the preceding Sui dynasty or the succeeding Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The chronology of Tang poetry may be divided into four parts: Early Tang poetry is subdivided into early, middle and late phases. The Southern Dynasty Court or Palace poems tended towards an ornate and flowery style and particular vocabulary, partly passed on through continuity of certain governmental individuals who were also poets, during the transition from Sui to Tang.
Topics to write about in poetry, there were many others, as this was a culture that placed a great emphasis on literature and poetry, at least for persons in official capacity and their social intimates. Representative of the middle phase of early Tang were the so-called "Four Literary Friends: This represents a transitional phase.
In the late phase the poetic style becomes more typical of what is considered as Tang poetry. They each preferred to dispense with literary pretensions in favor of authenticity.
Chen Zi'ang — is credited with being the great poet who finally brought an end to the Beginning Tang period, casting away the ornate Court style in favor of a hard-hitting, authentic poetry which included political and social commentary at great risk to himselfand thus leading the way to the greatness that was to come.
High Tang poetry had numerous schools of thought: Li Bai — and Du Fu — were the two best-known Tang poets. This had a tremendous impact on their poetry, and indeed signified the end of an era.
This was a time of rebuilding and recovery, but also high taxes, official corruption, and lesser greatness. Li Bo's bold seizing of the old forms and turning them to new and contemporary purposes and Du Fu's development of the formal style of poetry, though hard to equal, and perhaps impossible to surpass, nevertheless provided a firm edifice on which the Middle Tang poets could build.
Several Tang poets stand out as being to individualistic to really be considered a group, yet sharing a common interest in experimental exploration of the relationship of poetry to words, and pushing the limits thereof; including: These dual pairs have been considered to typify two divergent poetic streams which existed during each of these two times, the flourishing Tang and the late Tang: The Late Tang poetry of Du Mu's type tended toward a clear, robust style, often looking back upon the past with sadness, perhaps reflecting the times.
The Tang dynasty was falling apart, it was still in existence, but obviously in a state of decline. The poetry of Li Shangyin's type tended towards the sensuously abstract, dense, allusive, and difficult.
These poets have been attracting gaining interest in modern times. There were also other poets belonging to one or the other of two major schools of the Late Tang. During the final twilight of Tang, both schools were prone to a melancholic angst; they varied by whether they tended towards metaphor and allusiveness or a more clear and direct expression.
Continuation in Southern Tang[ edit ] After the official fall of the Tang dynasty insome members of its ruling house of Li managed to find refuge in the south of China, where their descendants founded the Southern Tang dynasty in the year This dynasty continued many of the traditions of the former great Tang dynasty, including poetry, until its official fall inwhen its ruler, Li Yuwas taken into captivity.
Importantly for the history of poetry, Li survived another three years as a prisoner of the Song dynastyand during this time composed some of his best known works. This allows for subtleties which can only be grasped by matching the poems together. Succeeding eras have seen the popularity of various Tang poets wax and wane.
The Qing dynasty saw the publication of the massive compilation of the collected Tang poems, the Quantangshias well as the less-scholarly for example, no textual variants are givenbut more popular, Three Hundred Tang Poems.
Furthermore, in the Qing dynasty era the imperial civil service examinations the requirement to compose Tang style poetry was restored. List of Classical Chinese poetry anthologies Many collections of Tang poetry have been made, both during the Tang dynasty and subsequently.
In the first century of the Tang period several early collections of contemporary poetry were made, some of which survive and some which do not: Part of an anthology by Cui Rongthe Zhuying ji also known as the Collection of Precious Glories has been found among the Dunhuang manuscriptsconsisting of about one-fifth of the original, with fifty-five poems by thirteen men, first published in the reign of Wu Zetian — It is so popular that many poems in it have been adopted by Chinese language text books of China's primary schools and secondary schools.
Some of the poems in it are normally regarded as must-recite ones. He said he found the poems in the poetry textbook students that had been using, "Poems by A Thousand Writers" Qian-jia-shiwere not carefully selected but a mixture of Tang dynasty poems and Song dynasty poems written in different styles.The Time Is Now offers a weekly writing prompt (we’ll post a poetry prompt on Tuesdays, a fiction prompt on Wednesdays, and a creative nonfiction prompt on Thursdays) to help you stay committed to your writing practice throughout the year.
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From realistic fiction to mysteries to sci-fi to poetry to academic papers, your writing is only limited by your imagination. Sep 06, · How to Write a Poem.
Writing a poem is all about observing the world within or around you. A poem can be about anything, from love to loss to the rusty gate at the old farm. Writing poetry can seem daunting, especially if you do not feel 75%().